How many times a week do you read an article on cyber security and hacking?


2::They are benign computer experts.
2::They are malicious computer criminals.
3::Hackers could be both benign computer experts and malicious computer criminals

This is correct but only partially, since hackers may also be malicious. In fact, hackers are persons with high technical skills and possessing high degree of knowledge, being able to get unauthorized access into protected systems and assets. However, the term can have different meanings depending on the context in which it is used. The common distinction is between ‘white hat hackers’ (benign) and ‘black hat hackers’ (malicious) or between ‘hacking for good’ (e.g. to assess and test security) and ‘hacking for bad’ (e.g. for criminal activities). Usually, bad hackers are being referred to as crackers. A discussion is available in this ENISA report: https://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/stakeholder-relations/nis-brokerage-1/brokerage-model-for-network-and-information-security-in-education.

 

This is correct but only partially, since hackers may also be benign. In fact, hackers are persons with high technical skills and possessing high degree of knowledge, being able to get unauthorized access into protected systems and assets. However, the term can have different meanings depending on the context in which it is used. The common distinction is between ‘white hat hackers’ (benign) and ‘black hat hackers’ (malicious) or between ‘hacking for good’ (e.g. to assess and test security) and ‘hacking for bad’ (e.g. for criminal activities). Usually, bad hackers are being referred to as crackers. A discussion is available in this ENISA report: https://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/stakeholder-relations/nis-brokerage-1/brokerage-model-for-network-and-information-security-in-education.

 

This is correct since hackers could be both benign and malicious. In fact, hackers are persons with high technical skills and possessing high degree of knowledge, being able to get unauthorized access into protected systems and assets. However, the term can have different meanings depending on the context in which it is used. The common distinction is between ‘white hat hackers’ (benign) and ‘black hat hackers’ (malicious) or between ‘hacking for good’ (e.g. to assess and test security) and ‘hacking for bad’ (e.g. for criminal activities). Usually, bad hackers are being referred to as crackers. A discussion is available in this ENISA report: https://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/stakeholder-relations/nis-brokerage-1/brokerage-model-for-network-and-information-security-in-education

 


Although both are popular buzzwords they are also of paramount importance in our daily life at work or during our spare time.

Generally, who are hackers?