Data Protection by Design is an approach to the protection of personal data that relies on having data protection safeguards embedded in technologies rather than just in documents or statements such as Privacy Policies.


1::The antivirus software
1::Firewall
3::Encryption

This is not the correct answer. The antivirus is an important protection of your computer against malware such as viruses or worms. While is some cases an antivirus can protect you from malicious code that may affect your privacy (e.g. spyware), it is not a Privacy-Enhancing Technology. Among the answers proposed the correct one is Encryption: the process that makes data unintelligible, thereby protecting it against unauthorized access (since only authorized users are able to decrypt and, therefore, to read the data). Encryption is a mature, widely adopted and relatively simple to apply Privacy-Enhancing Technology.

For a simple introduction on Privacy-Enhancing Technologies s see the following article from the International Association of Privacy Professionals:

https://privacyassociation.org/news/a/2008-05-introduction-to-privacy-enhancing-technologies/

You can also consult the ENISA report Privacy and Data Protection by Design: https://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/identity-and-trust/library/deliverables/privacy-and-data-protection-by-design

 

This answer is not the correct one. The firewall is an important protection for network traffic that filters in and out communication, and thus it can protect a computer from some security and privacy threats, but it is not a Privacy-Enhancing Technology. Among the answers proposed the correct one is Encryption: the process that makes data unintelligible thereby protecting it against unauthorized access (since only authorized users are able to decrypt and, therefore, to read the data). Encryption is a mature, widely adopted and relatively simple to apply Privacy-Enhancing Technology.

For a simple introduction on Privacy-Enhancing Technologies see the following article from the International Association of Privacy Professionals:

https://privacyassociation.org/news/a/2008-05-introduction-to-privacy-enhancing-technologies/

You can also consult the ENISA report Privacy and Data Protection by Design: https://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/identity-and-trust/library/deliverables/privacy-and-data-protection-by-design

 

This answer is the correct one. Encryption is a mature, widely adopted and relatively simple to apply Privacy-Enhancing Technology. It is the process that makes data thereby protecting it against unauthorized access (since only authorized users are able to decrypt and, therefore, to read the data).

For a simple introduction on Privacy-Enhancing Technologies see the following article from the International Association of Privacy Professionals

https://privacyassociation.org/news/a/2008-05-introduction-to-privacy-enhancing-technologies/

You can also consult the ENISA report Privacy and Data Protection by Design https://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/identity-and-trust/library/deliverables/privacy-and-data-protection-by-design

 


To this end, Privacy-Enhancing Technology (PET) can be used for forcing built-in privacy (although PETs cannot always guarantee that all privacy problems are solved).

 

Which of the following is a fundamental and well established Privacy-Enhancing Technology?